On 18th June 1815, Emperor Napoleon I of France engaged forces of the British-led Seventh Coalition under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, near Waterloo in modern-day Belgium. Having returned from exile in Elba, Napoleon had reinstated himself as emperor and reinvigorated France after its humiliating invasion of Russia in 1812. Despite strong actions throughout the battle and nearly decimating Wellington’s force, Napoleon faced many tactical setbacks and was outflanked by the Prussians. With the end of Waterloo came the end of French imperial ambitions in Europe; Napoleon abdicated and spent the rest of his life in exile on the island of St Helena.
By Ibrahim Zamir